PFI(Private Finance Initiative)在台灣的觀念裡似乎就是民間參予公共建設,在傳統的認知上直接等同BOTBOOT甚至BOO,但英國在1997年以後將PFI的觀念給予重新的定義,並將原本"民間參與公共建設"的概念提升為PPP,因此,弄清楚啥是PPP啥是PFI實有其必要,以避面閱讀相關文件時造成觀念上的模糊及錯誤。

因此PPP一詞在當今英國的營建產業相當常見,但是在相關文件內似乎仍有不同的意涵,那到底甚麼是PPP?這要從什麼是合夥關係(Partnership)定義開始,目前常見的定義可以概略定義為兩大類,第一種,是政府與民間單位對於開發專案(Project),共同投入資源並共同承擔專案風險;另一派則認為,政府與民間單位簽訂了長期合約關係,也是一種夥伴關係(Partnership)

根據聯合國發展項目(United Nations Development Programme) 的文件指出,最廣義的PPP觀念包含了各式各樣的公私合夥的方式,如圖:

 Spectrum of PPPs  

以現今英國的PPP種類有三種(Rodney&Clark,2000),第一類是特許經營並向使用者收費(Concession),這類的特色在於民間興建公共設施然後向使用者收費,而對於公部門而言主要的工作在於遴選特許經營廠商及核定得向使用者收費的金額,傳統的BOTBOOT都屬於這類型,最典型的案例即是台灣高鐵。第二類就是PFI,以現今英國的定義,PFI就是DBFO(Design-Build-Finance-Operation),此類型的最大特色在於,由民間出資興建硬體,並利用該硬體提供服務給公部門,公部門則依私人所提供的設施服務的可用性及效能支付費用給私人公司。第三類型是合夥投資(Joint Venture),此類型就是政府與民間共同投資在專案開發上,共同承擔風險及利潤,在英國最常見的典範在於英國有興建國宅(Social Housing)提供給弱勢的單位,與民間共同投資興建。

簡單的說,PPP以經是公私合作的泛稱,BOT、JV、OT及PFI都是PPP的項下採購模式,但PFI與BOT以有本質上的差異,簡單說PFI強調購買的是服務不是硬體且提供服務的廠商係將公部門收錢,而BOT反而重硬體且廠商是向使用者付費(如台灣高鐵),本質上差異很大實不宜再將之混為一談了!!!

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  • Wei
  • Joint Venture is privatisation,
  • liauopei
  • hehehehe...In the biginning, I have the same idea with u that JV is contracting out. But in the context of UK, the JV does not only mean private sectors work together but also include public sectors work together with private sectors.Therefore, in this context, it can be argued that JV is one type of PPP. In terms of this topic, I would suggest u to consult with Andrew Adkins who is a expert in PPP or u can chat with Chien-Yu, Chung who is a Taiwanese lecturer in Bartlett can communicate with u in Mandarin.
  • Kate
  • PPP/PFI

    In short, PFI is funded by the bank (private sector) solely when PPP (Public Private Partnership) is co-funded btw govermnet and private sector really. Both PFI/PPP are often contracted out during operaitonal phase once the building, railways, schools, hopsitals are built.

    I am working in UK as PPP/PFI techcnial advisor to the senior lenders for years and would be interested to know if taiwan is going to use PFI/PPP route in future so i will finally have the chance to go home for business purpose!

    p.s. is there any taiwanese in UK working in PFI/PPP sector like me?
  • To Kate:
    Thank you for your message. I am so glad that you,a professional PFI/PPP practitioner, gives me those professional ideas.

    As I know, a lot of BOT projects are on going in Taiwan. But there is no real PFI project. The Taiwan government does consider to adapt PFI, however, it is still under consideration. In terms of this issue, I would suggest you to explore this website (http://ppp.pcc.gov.tw/pcc_site/)in order to know the progress of this new procurement in Taiwan.

    Personally, I think PFI/PPP will play an important role in Taiwan in the future. I also want to shift my original job to PFI/PPP consulting job. Hahaha.. But it is unlucky for me that I learned those knowledges in recession. So, I have no chance to get real practice in the UK and back to my original job as a registered architect in Taiwan.

    I only know one taiwanese whose work is relative to the PFI/PPP, but he is a lecturer in UCL. He also did some research for Taiwanese government and had a lot of articles in taiwanese professional magazine.

    I will go to London in the middle of September. I hope I have a chance to meet u than.

    liauopei 於 2009/08/07 20:57 回覆

  • jaison
  • hi, bumped into this article while i'm searching out PFI...
    i suppose this is a mean in the near future taiwanese governments will going to adopt, like recently taipei city government is working on several sites to develop "rent housing" (or whatever the term is) and they're trying out PFI, which is definitely new to them.
    but what i'm interesting is, here in taiwan before applying BOT, a feasibility study is required. hence i'm wondering this might be the case for PFI in taiwan in the future. despite this (there could be so many uncertainties in choosing BOT or PFI, you know taiwanese governments), i'd like to know that in the uk, do they need to do such study before adopting PFI?
    sorry cuz i don't have practical working experience in the uk, and currently kind of interested in this method, so if you can give some advice on my question, that'll be great. thank you!
  • Hi~Jaison: Taiwanese government does consider to adopt this in its procurement system. But I think there is no such mature procurement environment in Taiwan. This is because PFI procurement needs to integrate three main professions: finance, raw and construction and allocate risks to whom has the best ability to manage, however Taiwanese government used to take no risk. This is not good to contractor. As I know, the PFI project of Taipei city government is not real PFI project. I did discuss this with Sandy who is in charge of this project in Taipei City Government.
    I do not have PFI working experiences in UK neither. But we do talk about the feasible study in our course. In the UK, we use cost benefit analysis to do it. U can get all u want in HM Treasury's website as well as google the Kai Rintala's The economic efficiency of service PFI projects. Hope this is helpful for u.

    liauopei 於 2012/05/30 18:09 回覆

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